Iron production process and its methods

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In this article, we want to introduce you two different methods of iron production.

Iron is one of the most common elements on earth. There is at least some iron in almost every human construction. It is also one of the oldest metals and became a useful and decorative object at least 3500 years ago. Iron production from ore involves an oxidation reduction reaction that takes place in a furnace.The Iron ore is usually a mixture of iron and large amounts of impurities such as sand, known as gang.The Iron in iron ores is found in the form of iron oxide.

Iron production methods:

Iron is generally produced in two ways:

  • Blast furnace or indirect resuscitation
  • Electric arc furnace method or direct reduction

The first method

Most of the world’s crude steel is produced by blast furnaces. It converts steel and after separating the impurities, crude steel is produced

The second method

The direct reduction method of iron is more justifiable than blast furnaces for steel production. In the electric arc furnace method, scrap iron or sponge iron is used. In Iran, due to the lack of scrap, more sponge iron is used. Southern Steel Complex uses this method to produce crude steel. Most of the steel produced in Iran are made from this Method.

In electric arc furnaces, due to the use of scrap iron, the production speed is higher and in terms of construction cost, the furnace is much less expensive than the blast furnace. In terms of environment, electric arc furnaces are much less polluted. The sponge has a higher grade and is easier to move.

Furnace fuel

Heat generation and regeneration are two operations in blast furnace fuel and are divided into two main categories, natural and artificial. Some natural fuels, such as anthracite coal, bitumen, and lignite, are more historical than economic, and among artificial fuels, coke is more important than coal and is used in most factories.

Coke has advantages such as porosity, hardness, abundance, greater flammability and cheapness. To prepare coke, several types of coal with volatile substances in them must be mixed together and turned into coke in special furnaces. This stage is called carbonization. The chemical composition of coke is 85-94% carbon and the rest contains volatiles, ash, sulfur and moisture.

Washing charcoal

Coal washing, due to its special nature and complexity, is very different from other minerals processing, not only in the identification process, but also in using different washing methods and designing coal washing flushites. These existing methods cannot be processed in In the case of other minerals, used. For this reason, special methods for washing coal should be examined in order to obtain the best results. Regarding coal washing in Zarand mines, experts, after extensive study, chose methods for washing coal in mines. In order to be aware of those methods, a short article was prepared, which is as follows.

One of the most important goals of coal washing is to improve the quality of coal in the preparation of metallurgical coke for steel production. Coal washing has a special place in the preparation of metallurgical coke. For example, the presence of ash and harmful elements causes problems, which include the following:

The ash in coal increases the consumption of substances too much.
By increasing coke ash by one percent, steel production is significantly reduced.
Too much ash increases the volume of the head.
Coke oxidation increases.
Sensitivity and efficiency of the furnace are reduced.
Excess standard sulfur makes iron brittle and increases the corrosion of steel.

Preparation of metallurgical coke with acceptable technical conditions is not possible without washing operation. For this reason, a coal washing factory was built in Zarand, which is extracted by mechanized method. Coal washing and coke preparation operations will be carried out by means of heavy intermediation and coal flotation.

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